Journal section "Social development"

Criteria and Resources for Social Adaptation of Russia’s Population

Smoleva E.O.

Volume 12, Issue 2, 2019

Smoleva E.O. Criteria and resources for social adaptation of Russia’s population. Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast, 2019, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 179-195. DOI: 10.15838/esc.2019.2.62.11

DOI: 10.15838/esc.2019.2.62.11

Abstract   |   Authors   |   References
The stress caused by social changes that Russia’s population experienced due to the change of the socio-economic order forced them to choose adaptation behavior strategies: from active influence on the environment to avoiding problems. In these conditions, the developing branch of knowledge – the sociology of adaptation – was interested in the socio-economic aspects of the issue associated with changes in living standards, social status and economic behavior strategies of members of different stratification groups and the impact of different types of capital. However, studying adaptation as a component of social health is equally important. The goal of the present paper is to study social adaptation of Russia’s population and identify its groups with different adaptation potential. We focus on adaptation in terms of resource and subject-activity approaches. European Social Survey data (Russia, sample size is 2,484 people) serve as an empirical base of our research. We consider social adaptation through the indicators of its result: adaptation level and through resources. We identify four latent variables using latent structural analysis of the observed variables that reflect different aspects of adaptation. Two of them characterize the result of adaptation: positive mental health and subjective activity (active behavioral practices in a changing environment). The other two are adaptation resources: internal (high adequate self-assessment, subjectivity, internal locus of control) and external (social support). Using latent-structural analysis we determine the grounds for stratification of Russian society according to the “social adaptation” criterion. We identify groups that are problematic in terms of the dynamics of adaptation processes in the case of the changes in the initial data such as an increase in the external load or a decrease in external resources. We reveal that from the standpoint of the subject-activity approach the maladjustment of an individual is connected with their alienation in professional activity. The novelty of our work lies in the fact that it implements an interdisciplinary approach to the study of social adaptation


social adaptation, resource-based approach, activity-based approach, adaptation potential, social subjectivity, social support

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