RuEn

Journal section "Social development"

The Potential of Modern Russian Generations

Dobrokhleb V.G., Zvereva N.V.

2 (44), 2016

Dobrokhleb V.G., Zvereva N.V. The Potential of Modern Russian Generations. Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast, 2016, no. 2 (44), pp. 61-78. DOI: 10.15838/esc.2016.2.44.4

DOI: 10.15838/esc.2016.2.44.4

Abstract   |   Authors   |   References
The paper considers the necessity of socio-demographic approach to assessing the potential of modern generations. The demographic potential of generations is determined by their number, their share in total population, and their life expectancy. Their economic potential is determined by the proportion of representatives of different generations in total employment. Their social potential is determined by the system of values of generations. The rapid growth of differences in these characteristics leads to the break up of intergenerational relations and is connected with the aggravation of social contradictions. The potential of modern generations can be considered in different aspects: number of generations, life expectancy at birth, the share of representatives of different generations that share or do not share the basic social values of the society, including values related to reproductive and other types of demographic behavior. In order to identify existing differences between generations in the framework of the socio-demographic approach, the paper analyzes the dynamics of the number of young people in 1926, 1936, 2014 in the Russian Federation; the authors also carry out a comparative analysis of the secondary and authors’ sociological data of values-related and reproductive attitudes of conditionally parental and child generations. Russian researchers studied the life potential of the population and proved that in 1990–2010, the life potential of Russia’s population decreased. Reduction in the life potential in the population in general is associated with a decrease in this indicator for the younger generation (children’s ages) due to the reduction in the number and proportion of this generation in the population structure. The reduction in the life potential has not stopped because the number of the younger generation continues to decrease. However, life expectancy in this period increased. Nevertheless, in general, mortality in the Russian Federation is considerably greater than in developed countries; in the first quarter of 2015 compared to the previous year, the number of deaths from major causes of death increased compared to the corresponding period of the last year. The systems of life goals of young people up to 30 years old and people aged 45 and older significantly differ in aspects such as education, continuous training, raising children, setting up one’s own family business and living on its income, spending free time, communicating a lot with friends. The desire for freedom and independence is more typical of young people aged 20–30. The hypothesis about the growth of individualism among young people has not been confirmed. Young people and the older generation have different opinions concerning the family (registered marriage) and two or three children. Material values occupy a dominant place in the opinions of all the generations. Reproductive plans of young people depend on education, lifestyle of their parental family and new socio economic conditions that are measured through the system of value orientations, life goals that depend on changing social values in the new environment. The value system is a regulator of priority in the satisfaction of demands. When the resources are limited, they can first of all be spent on the highest needs in the hierarchy rather than on the satisfaction of the need to have several children. The potential of generations, including their socio-economic activity and the number of unborn generations are largely determined by social values that are being formed today. The generations, including the generation of the 1990s, are facing a historical choice that will determine not only the present-day but also the future opportunities for Russia

Keywords

generation; potential of generations; employment of generations; life potential of generations; system of values of generations; social generation

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